Boulder and Tablet Unveiled by Catherine Schuyler Chapter D.A.R. at Caneadea

Over Four Hundred There

John S. Minard’s Address was Absorbingly Interesting - The Other Noted Speakers


“Here in 1782

Major Moses VanCampen

A Soldier of the Revolution

Captured by the Seneca’s

Keepers of the Western Door

The Iroquois Confederacy

Ran the Gauntlet

Thirty Rods West to Their

Ancient Council House

Which is Now Preserved in Letchworth Park.


This Boulder Was Placed by The Catherine Schuyler Chapter

N. S. D. A. R., 1908.”



This inscription on an enduring bronze tablet marks the big granite boulder which was unveiled at Can-eadea on August 25th by the Cath­erine Schuyler Chapter of the Daugh­ters of the American Revolution.


Under charming blue skies filled with fleecy white clouds, and with temperature delightfully modified by balmy breezes, unveiling ceremonies which will perpetuate an interesting Revolutionary incident in the early history of Allegany County were suc­cessfully conducted.  The boulder is set by the roadside in plain view of all passersby, about three miles north of Caneadea village on the east side of the Genesee River.  The location is about due east of Houston and about four miles south of Fillmore.  Here was located the old Council House in the far famed Indian Village of Ga-o-za-de-o.  The address of Allegany’s local historian, John S. Minard of Cuba, which is published herewith, describes accurately and with absorbing interest details of great historic interest concerning this Western door of the Iroquois confederacy.  Mr. Minard is an author and publisher of a book on Major Moses Van Campen and scenes in Allegany’s early history, and he is practically our sole authority on pioneer days in this county.


The D. A. R. were fortunate in se­curing a personal address from him.


Presentation by Miss Jennings


The exercises were attended by three or four hundred people.  The honored and beloved Regent of the Catherine Schuyler chapter, who has done much to make Allegany’s D. A. R. one of the best known and most highly apprecia­ted chapters in the National society, presided.  She first introduced Miss Jennings of Belfast, chairman of the committee of arrangements, who gave the address of presentation, and the acceptance was by Mrs. Frank Sullivan Smith of Angelica, who had been particularly interested in marking the site of the old council house and to whom personally is due much consideration for the successful culmination of the enterprise.  Mrs. Smith said:


Mrs. Smith’s Acceptance


“By direction of the organizer of the Catherine Schuyler Chapter, who has been, and still is, our beloved Regent and on behalf of my fellow members of the chapter, I am delegated to accept this boulder in their name. We thank you, Madam Chairman, for the problems you have solved in bringing this to a successful issue.   We are grateful to Mr. I.  Letchworth, Mr. Minard and all members of the Chapter and others who have aided in marking this historic place in our county.  The bronze promises to be lasting, so may be the friendships formed here.    The stone has endured for many ages but more enduring still we hope will be the seeds of patriotism, civic pride, hope and love which we leave in the hearts of those who follow after us.”





Unveiling by Misses Ely and Keeney


The boulder was then unveiled by the pretty little misses Frances Elly, of Belmont, and Freda Keeney of Belvidere.  These little girls were prettily attired in plain dresses draped with the American flag.  Mrs. Catherine Schuyler Rice, daughter of Mr. And Mrs. Joseph Rice, of Friendship, who was named after the Catherine Schuyler Chapter was to have participated in the unveiling, but unfortunately was not well.  The stars and stripes which had veiled the boulder were raised on a flagstaff, and a quartet sang the Red White and Blue.


‘Hon. Frank Sullivan Smith of An­gelica delivered a real oration in his address on the Victories of Peace.  It was eloquently spoken, well written and forceful. 


Rev. John W. Sanborn of Friend­ship entertained the audience with numerous legends of the Seneca’s, Joseph F. Rice of Friendship gave a happy little talk on “Marking Historic Places in the county’ and was greeted, with much applause. Judge McLennan

spoke briefly and Mr. John B. Church of Geneva “was highly interesting in his personal reminiscences of Major Moses VanCampen.


Rev. John Ward dismissed the audi­ence with a benediction and the af­fair then became an enjoyable country picnic.  Lunch baskets were searched for appetizing viands and an hour or two spent in social communing.


The site of the boulder, four feet square, was purchased by the D. A. R. and has been deeded to the Cath­erine Schuyler Chapter by Thomas Dole and E. Edgar, on the line be­tween whose farms it sets. It is a native granite rock, exceedingly hard and heavy and shapely in form.  From all appearances it is destined to endure a thousand thousand years.


Mr. Minard’s Address


Madame Regent and Ladies of the Catharine Schuyler Chapter D. A. R.:  With very becoming, ceremony you have unveiled a boulder and tablet which will for long years to come mark the scene of an interesting and exciting experience in the career of a

valiant border man, daring scout, and distinguished soldier of the Revolution.  And moreover, a man of much note as a civilian; one of the very few first of our country’s pioneers; a surveyor of no mean ability, and extensive practice; one who as a member of our first court, charged our first two grand juries, and held important appointive and elective positions.


Founder of County’s First Presbyterian Church


He was one of the six who found­ed the First Presbyterian Church in the County; and for some years was its ruling elder. His religion was of the practical, matter of fact, sturdy variety, so fittingly typified by this marker. 


Ladies, in placing this monument, you pay handsome tribute to a worthy man, and perform an important patriotic service, for which you richly deserve the lasting gratitude of the present, and the grateful remembrance of all future generations of Western New Yorkers.


I wish to congratulate you on the successful accomplishment of so worthy an object, and to say that I feel it a distinguished honor, to be assigned so prominent a number in these exercises.  I thank you for the compliment, and only hope the event may be such, as to justify you in bestowing it.


The Ancient Indian Village


Ladies and gentlemen, interest in this occasion is greatly intensified by the fact, that the incident alluded to by the marker, occurred, and we assembled at this moment, clearly within the limits of an ancient In­dian village, which was one of the most important of the Chief Towns of the Seneca’s, the most powerful and warlike of the Six Nations which

composed that wonderful “Iroquois Confederacy,” or “League of the Iro­quois,” which has challenged the at­tention, and won the admiration of historians, who have given its people posthumous fame, by calling them ’The Romans of the West.”


The power of the Confederacy was felt and dreaded, from the Hudson to the Mississippi, and from the great lakes, to the Gulf of Mexico.




At the beginning of the Revolution Ga-o-za-de-o, where we now are, was, and for some time had been, the “Western Door” of the “Long House” of the League.  At this place their chiefs were required to reside.


Over the hills to the north-west, ran a main trail through parts of Rushford, Centerville, Freedom, Ar­cade and on to Buffalo Creek, and Fort Niagara.  To the east, ran the “Canisteo path,” through Allen, Birdsall and Almond, to the head waters of the Susquehanna, while down the river, a trail led to O-wa-is-ki, Gardean, Little Beards town, and Canawagus.


Up the river, was a path leading to the divide between the waters of the Genesee, and the Pennsylvania streams, and on, and on.


So it seems that Ga-o-za-de-o, was quite centrally located.


The Six Nations Favored Britain


With the exception of the Oneidas and part of the Luscroras, the Six Nations espoused the cause of Great Britain.


In this age of commercialism, and viewing the matter with the perspec­tive of 130 years, we can hardly find it in our hearts to blame them, for it must be admitted, that they had been well treated by Britain; better quite likely than the Colonies could have afforded to do by them.


Very naturally it came about that Ga-o-za-de-o was a sort of a military post, a center from which operations proceeded, a rendezvous for recruits, a place of mobilization, for descent upon the frontier towns of New York and Pennsylvania.


To this place for the purpose of co-operating with the Indians in organizing war parties, was sent Capt. Nellis of the historic “Butler’s Rangers” and his son who was a lieuten­ant.


Here an Indian, past middle age, who in his early manhood had as­sumed the name of a white friend named Hudson, but who had come to be called Hudson, was living when hostilities began.  He was the rank­ing chief here.  Another chief here was Gah-nee-son-go, (man fond of nanniberries,) but who was better known as Shongo, or Col. or Capt. Shongo.


The two were great friends, and had been from boyhood. They had often been on the path together, and were equally distinguished as war­riors,


The exalted title of Do-nee-ha-ga-weh, “Open Door” was therefore given each of them, and they shared equally the honors and responsibilities of “Keeper of the Door”.


These two chiefs in 1781* headed the party which captured Horatio Jones.


Scene of Many Councils


Close students of Indian Revolutionary history, aver that right here were matured the plans for, and the last council was held before the descent upon Wyoming.


Indeed some claim that Shongo was in command of the Indian part of the expedition, which made such a black record for 1778.  It is certain that the Caneadea Indians were

there in force.


When in 1779, Sullivan’s Army was sent into the country of the Six Nations to punish the Indians, and lay waste their towns and cornfields, a young man barely 22 years of age, accompanied the expedition in the capacity of quartermaster.  His name was Moses Van Campen.  At the battle of Newtown, near Elmira, the young quartermaster, though not required to, took part in the fray, and engaged with an Indian in a sort of a duel from behind trees.  Succeeding in drawing the fire of the Indian without harm to himself, Van Campen had nothing more to fear from that particular tree till the Indian could reload his piece, in doing which he exposed a part of his person, easily guessed by those familiar with old time firelocks.


Drawing the sights close to the mark, Moses pulled the trigger.  A wild shriek followed and Mr. Indian disappeared!.


Some forty years later, Van Campen and Shongo met in a store in Angelica, and soon engaged in relating their war exploits.


Van Campen related the incident at Newtown, when to his surprise, Shongo exclaimed,

“I same Indian, I same Indian,” and to prove it, removed his breech cloth and showed the scar!


In 1780, Van Campen and others were captured at Shawnese flats, by a party of nine Indians from here, commanded by John Mohawk and his father and younger brother were killed.


In the night they effected their escape by killing all but the leader, who engaged with Van Campen in a terrific struggle, after the latter had killed 5 of them, with his own hand, wielding a tomahawk which he had stolen from his adversary. Mohawk succeeded in getting away, but with a gash on his neck or left shoulder, which it required several months spent here, and at Fort Niagara to heal.  He ever after carried his head to one side. I have met with sever­al who have told me they had seen the scar. The historic weapon used on that interesting occasion, is now to be seen in the Genesee Valley Museum in Letchworth Park.


Mohawk’s Visit to VanCampen


Long years after, when Van Cam­pen was living in Dansville, Horatio Jones met Mohawk somewhere In that neighborhood, and persuaded the scarred old chief to visit his old time adversary.


The chief first declined saying “Van Campen will not want to see me.  “Yes he will,” said Jones, “Van Cam­pen is a warrior. It is peace now. He will be glad to see you.”


He went. It was just dusk and Van Campen was sick and in his bed. A daughter answered the call, and told her father there was an Indian at the door, who she thought was ‘Mohawk. “Tell him to come in,”said the Major. “But are you not afraid?” said the daughter. “No. Tell him to come in, said the father. The Indian came in, and they met in this way.


Said Van Campen, “Are you John Mohawk?” “Yes,” said Mohawk., “Come here,” said the Major. He came to the bedside and Van Campen placing, his hand on his neck and running it down under the clothing, felt the scar quite plainly, exclaim­ing “Yes, you are John Mohawk. That’s my mark.”


A word as to Mohawk. It has been said he was the most human of all the Caneadea warriors, and num­erous instances have been cited, where he interfered to save the lives of prisoners, who otherwise would have been cruelly tortured and killed.


Mohawk carved a butter ladle and gave it to a daughter of Van Campen as a token of friendship.  The ladle is in the museum at Glen Iris.


On the 16th of April 1782, on Bald Eagle creek, Pa., Van Campen with a company of’ twenty five men, was attacked by eighty five Indians under Hudson and Shongo, assisted by Lieut. Nellis and a platoon of Butler’s Rangers.


Nine of Van Campen’s men were killed, three escaped and the rest with Van Campen surrendered.


The party with their prisoners at once set out for this place.  At the Pigeon Woods in this valley, not far from the state line, they met an out­going party with whom was Horatio Jones, who had become an expert in­terpreter.


The exploit with Mohawk had ad­vertised Van Campen quite extensive­ly, and the Indians were on the watch for him.


With the outgoing party was a Dutchman named Houser. a dull honest hind of a fellow, who in the mix­up with the new prisoners, had met Lish Hunt, one of Van Campen’s

men, with whom he was formerly acquainted, who told him Van Campen was one of the party.  Houser told this to Jones who at once took in the situation, and with most consummate tact managed to speak with Hunt, Houser having pointed him out, after Jones had sealed his lips as to Van Campen.  Cautiously in a low voice, he told him of the situation, enjoined secrecy as to their leader, threatening to kill him if he disclosed his name and made him promise to tell the rest of the prisoners and enjoin secrecy.


VanCampen had been pointed out to him in some way, and he watched for the opportunity, and made himself known to him, quickly, told him of the situation and what he had done, and finished by saying  “Do not be discouraged. I, too, am a prison­er, and a white man In blood and sympathy. You can rest assured of my silence and friendship.”


In a subdued voice almost a whisper, VanCampen said, “Those are the sweetest words I ever heard spoken,” and they parted.

The party son resumed the march to this place to be welcomed by the entire stay-at-home population, with every token of joy and exultation.


Running the Gauntlet


Preparation was soon made for the gauntlet running.  Van Campen was one of the first to pass the ordeal.  The course was about forty rods long, the goal the Council house, and the laughable and ludicrous finish of his race, wherein he became so mixed up with the two young squaws who sought to impede, or prevent his getting through, so convulsed the crowd with laughter, and so filled them with mirth and good feeling, as to make the run quite easy for his comrades.


The flocked around him, and patted him on the shoulder, exclaiming “Shenewana!” “Cajena!” “Brave Man. Good Fellow” and at once he was the hero of the day.


Lieut. Nellis introduced him to his father, Capt Nellis, commending his for his bravery, saying, “He fought me manfully, and if he had been equally manned, would have beaten me, but as my party was the strongest, I overcame him.  Since he has been a prisoner, has conducted himself like a gentleman, and I wish him treated one.”


The Captain invited him to dine with him. . He accepted and made the discovery that his wife was a dusky Seneca squaw!


The war dance and the turtle dance were gone through with, in the latter a beautiful young squaw was brought to Van Campen for a partner by a warrior.


Dancing and festivity were kept up for two or three days; then the party passed on with their prisoners to Fort Niagara, where they were surrendered to the commandant, and the Indians received their pay.


Jones directions to “lie like the deuce and stick to it if quizzed as to Van Campen” had been carried out to the letter, and he had slipped through their hands undiscovered.

In a short time however, they learned the facts.  A fierce row en­sued, and the demand was made that he be given up. The demand was re­fused. Then they offered to give fourteen other prisoners for him, but to no avail. The prisoners were soon on board ship bound for Mon­treal, from which place they were in due time exchanged.


In 1791 Col. Thomas Proctor made the journey from Philadelphia to Buf­falo Creek to attend a council of western Indians.


Ga-o-za-de-o was on his route. The day he was here, the town was nearly deserted, it being in the sugar making season.


He described the village as being “on a high bluff overlooking the Genesee river.


He spelled the name Canasedea”.  To quote, “In this place is erected a wooden statue (or deity) fashioned like a fierce looking sage. This form they worship by dancing before it on festive occasions, or new moon.”


The village then “consisted of about thirty houses, some of them done in a manner that shows some taste in the workmen.”


Departure of Six Nations


In 1797, at the treaty of Big Tree, with the exception of a few reserva­tions unimportant in extent, in the immediate vicinity of their principal villages, the Seneca’s parted with their western New York lands to Robert Morris.


Of the six reservations on this river, five were made of two square miles each, while Ga-o-za-de-o was laid off eight miles long by two wide, or six square miles larger than all the others together.


I have always considered this circumstance a far measure of the relative importance of the several reservations


And yet, this great difference in size may have been in part at least, owing to the superior influence, tact and diplomacy of the Caneadea Chiefs, who at first made claim for a tract fifty miles long by six wide.


In September, 1798, Augustus Pointer ran the boundary lines.  Who of the local Indians accompanied him, (for it was left to them to say where the tract should be laid.) I have never learned.


Doubtless though, the two irrepres­sible leaders, Shongo and Hudson, were on the ground, and if Red Jack­et did not show up, it would be con­trary to his practice, for to use a homely expression, “his nose was stuck into” every land deal, as well as any other matter of importance to the Seneca’s.


The lines were found to Include five villages, Wes-kaugh-ya, evident­ly Wiscoy, She-ne-ta-ye, Old Can-a­-du-dea, New Can-a-du-dea, and Capt. Shongo’s.


Old Can-a-du-dea was this place, and Shongo’s must have been the lit­tle village or collection of huts, which the late George Parker of hunting renown, found when he “took up” the land now covered by the Mc­Clure and Bartlett farms, on the fiats nearly opposite the station at Houghton.


Shongo’s Flats


The flats were called, “Shongo fiats,” and the little stream which there emerges from the hills was, I and still is, and long will be known as “Shongo brook.”


And the famous old Indian sugar bush at the mouth of the brook was I think, called Shongo’s.  Some who hear me can well remember that bush.  I do, very well.


Well, Shongo lived there.  Shongo in those days was what in these days is sometimes called “It.”


This territory is admitted to be a delightful section now.  What must it have been in early times, and under Indian domination.


A Fruitful Valley


The Genesee valley is said to have been the terrestrial paradise of the Seneca’s. It really filled all the re­quirements which a race of people like our American Indians could ex­act as the conditions of an ideal home.


The river languidly wound its tor­tuous course through broad open fiats which responded generously to the rude cultivation of the Indian women laughing with bounteous harvests of corn, beans, squash, anything in­deed, which they chose to cultivate, when only slightly tickled with their rude implements of husbandry. And anon, ran the silver ribbon of the Ge-nish-he-o, through heavily timbered fiats, bearing an enormous wealth of gigantic pines, gracefully spreading elms, and large white buttonwoods, while the banks were fringed a good part of the way with butternut elm, willows, a species of cottonwood and occasionally, a fragrant balm in Gil­ead.


Enormous grape vines, climbing ivy, and the beautiful bittersweet, twined their tendrils about them, adding much beauty and attraction, while here and there on the bottom

lands, were found groups of plum and thorn apple trees and occasional small apple orchards, doubtless grown from seeds introduced by Jes­uit missionaries. The uplands pre­sented a great variety of timber, and herbage in endless variety.


Deer in great number roamed the grand old woods, bears not infre­quently, and wolves, panthers and other wild animals abounded; while the streams were filled with fish of various kinds, the trout predominat­ing.


If I were a Parkman, I could make you hear the sighing of the pines, the murmur of the rills, the laughter of the shallows, the roar of the water­falls of old Ga-o-za-de-o, but I despair.


By running the lines, Ga-o-za-de-o was somewhat abbreviated in length, and in some places lessened in width, as originally it was supposed to in­clude the Canedea creek and gorge, and to extend as far north as Fort Hill.


When the war of 1812-14 came on, there was some anxiety on the part of the whites as to the probable atti­tude of the Canedea Indians, as the part they took in the Revolution, was well known.


Especially was this the case at Angelica.  Accordingly, a committee was sent down here to confer with the chiefs and warriors, and ascertain if possible, what they might expect as to their conduct, during the unpleasantness.


 Indian Ceremonies Here


A council was called and an aged chief, quite likely Hudson, addressed his people.  Taking a little child in his arms, he compared it to the Colonies in the Revolution, saying “Child that he was then, he whipped the big man, Great Britain. Now child grown to be big man too, what will he do?”  He counseled friendly relations with the white neighbors.


The committee returned in the best of spirits, and in a few days, a deputation of Caneadea Indians visited Angelica, and in the old Courthouse, a meeting was held, the Indians seated on one side, the whites on the other.  The deliberations were closed with the impressive ceremony of smoking the pipe of peace, in which all took part.


Not only were the Caneadea Indians friendly, they were more than friendly.


At a council held at Buffalo by Erastus Granger, on the 25th of July, 1813, Capt. Shongo from Caneadea said, “that eleven men from their village intended to stay and fight, and would stay a month longer.


Cornplanter from Allegheny said, “We turn out seven.” Sharp Shins from Etykie Hill said “I will stay alone.”


Another measure of the importance of Ga-o-za-de-o.  The Senecas did help the United States in that war and in doing so, were found in arms for the first time, against their brothers the Mohawks, keepers of the eastern door who after the Revolution, removed to Caneadea, and continued their allegiance to Great Britain.  It caused bad feeling between the Mohawks and Senecas.  It was with difficulty that a Mohawk, Col. W. J. Simcoe Kerr, a grandson of the famous Capt. Brant, could be persuaded to attend the last Council on the Genesee in 1872 on that account.


About 1800 settlement on all sided of this reservation became quite active in some instances the settlers lands joining that of the Indians.


The settlers sometimes hired land of the Indians to plant with corn.  Instances were known where Indian children attended the nearby district schools.


As a rule, their relations with their white neighbors were pleasant.  They kept up their customary feasts, dances and observances.


Many of the whites attended them, largely from curiosity and in some instances made themselves offensive to the Indians.  Especially was this case at the ceremony of burning the white dog.


Indeed it came in time, that they much preferred that the whites stay away.  In one instance, the ceremony was deferred for a day on account of the presence of so many whites.


The late Loran Houghton informed me that he once attended a green corn dance at this place, when the attendance was so large as to require six five pail brass kettles to boil the corn succotash and venison on which they feasted.


They came from Tonawanda, Allegheny, Cattaragus and Buffalo.


Mrs. Philip Church was invited to attend one of their annual feasts and dances here.  This was during the war of 1812, when her husband was in England.


She came with a daughter and visiting friend, bringing a sleigh load of provision, blankets, trinkets and ribbons in great variety, remained over night and was given much attention and was adopted into Chief Shongo’s family and given a name Ye-nun-ke-a-



When the battle of Lake Erie was fought, it has been said the Caneadea Indians heard the guns, so acute was their sense of hearing.  They at once sent a number of their braves to Belvidere, offering to place a guard about the mansion, fearing they said that the Canada Indians might make her trouble.  She declined the offer and got along very well without such attention.  But after a while for obvious reasons, the Indians thought it best to sell their lands.


So, on the 31st of August 1826, at the Council House on Buffalo Creek, after due deliberation, they conveyed this reservation, with some other lands to a syndicate of land speculators, for the sum of $48,216.00.


Among the names of the 47 grantors are found Shongo, Big Kettle, Red Jacket and Cornplanter.


In 1827, Joseph Jones the Quaker surveyor, appeared on the scene and subdivided the tract into lots of suitable size for farms.


At that time this village consisted of only five houses and the Council House, and there were eleven apple trees.  The Indians soon began to leave, and by 1830, scarce a red man was left on the reservations.  The last to leave was Capt. Shongo.  He was loath to go, and his leaving was indeed pathetic.  No wonder, is it?


Joel Seaton soon came into possession of this lot.  Her removed the council house to this place, and here, by the roadside for many years it stood, an object of much interest and curiosity to passers by.


During the sixties, I made the acquaintance of Mr. William P. Letchworth, soon finding him much interested in anything relating to the Indian occupation of this valley.


I told him of this interesting old structure, and what I could learn of it. He wanted to see it; and thirty seven years ago about this time, he came to Hume where I was then living, and together we visited the old Seneca Council house here.


Still more careful inquiry was made, and satisfied as to its antiquity, identity, and historic associations, he became much interested; I have sometimes thought really infatuated with the idea of possessing it.  Early in the fall of that year he commissioned me to purchase it for him.


I did so, marked all the timbers, looked carefully after taking it down and shipped it to him on the canal.


With his customary thoughtfulness, he came up with an artist, and a picture was made of it, before any portion had been removed.  Of later years for some reason, Mr. Letchworth has come to regret the making of the picture, but I am very glad it was taken.


During the summer of 1872, it was with almost religious care, reconstructed under the personal supervision of John Shanks, an aged Canedea Indian, who knew the building when he was a boy, and it was restored as nearly as possible to its original condition.


On the first day of August 1872, it was rededicated; former President Fillmore gracing the occasion with his presence, and presiding over the ceremonies.


Directly after the dedicative ceremonies, the last Indian council on the Genesee was held in the old Ga-o-za-de-o Council house, whose original site you have with so much propriety just marked.


After the routine proceedings were ended, Nicholson Parker, who made the opening speech, in a few words spoken in his own tongue, formally closed the council.


Then turning to the white guests, he finished a short speech with these impressive words, “The Ho-de-no-sau-nee, the people of the Long House are scattered hither and yon.  Their League no longer exists, and you who are sitting here today, have seen the last of the confederated Iroquois.


“We have raked the ashes over our fire, and have closed the last council of our people, in the valley of our fathers.”


Mr. Fillmore in behalf of Mr. Letchworth presented each of the invited Indian guests, a silver medal especially prepared as a souvenir of that interesting event.


A part of the dedication exercises was assigned to your humble servant.  Duties of a nature quite unyielding however, prevented his attendance, he has ever regretted.


Through all the years since, Mr. Letchworth has watched with jealous eye and carefully preserved the venerable old relic of our predecessors in this valley and wise provision has been made for its future.


There let it stand for aye, on that lofty eminence mid the wildest and grandest scenery of the Genesee, where thousands annually shall gaze upon the old walls, which here at old Ga-o-za-de-o, echoed the matchless eloquence of Red Jacket, and rang with the impassioned appeals of Hudson, a mute but eloquent and pathetic reminder of the proud people whose home was once this beautiful valley on the upper Ge-nish-he-o, whose capital was old Ga-o-za-de-o.


Frank S. Smith’s Speech


The heroism and patriotism of wo­man in time of war have been sung by poets and lauded by historians since wars began.  For centuries has been cited the example of the Spartan mother who bade her son, when departing for battle, to return only bearing his shield or borne upon it.  In Immortal measures Byron forever has embalmed the memory of the Maid of Saragossa.  What American is not proud of the work of Betsy Ross in piecing together the strips of ‘cloth to form that flag of which Joseph Rodman Drake has sung:


“When Freedom from her mountain height,

Unfurled her Standard to the air,

She tore the azure robe of night,

And set the stars of glory there;

She mingled with its gorgeous dyes,,.,

The milky baldric of the skies,

And striped its pure celestial white,

With streakings of the morning light.”


What American’s blood does not thrill at the story of Molly Pitcher’s defense of that flag and of Catherine Schuyler burning the field of wheat that it might not nurture British and Hessian invaders!  When will men cease to praise the noblest work which women can perform in time of war in mitigating its horrors as did Florence Nightingale in Europe and Dorothea Dix in our own land!  And yet woman’s best work is not reserved for war -it is in peace.  The magnitude of her work has made her sphere as great as the globe on which we dwell.  In the providence of God there is in the world more of peace than war and so is woman’s field of work certainly as great as that of man.  In Austria a man is forbidden by law to make a balloon ascension without the written consent of his wife. Thus we see that woman’s influence has become so paramount that man can’t even get off the earth on his own responsibility.


We are cognizant of the work of edu­cation in patriotism which the Socie­ty of the Daughters of the American Revolution is doing today throughout our land and its necessity is no where more apparent than right here in our own County of Allegany, as illustrated by a conversation between two of our citizens on the subject of the event which has brought us together today.  One man said to another: “The Daugh­ters of the American Revolution are going to set up a monument down in Caneadea.” The person addressed inquired in whose honor the monument was to be erected.  The reply was: “Benedict Arnold!”


The  Catherine Schuyler Chapter has begun well its campaign of education in the history of our forefathers by offering medals of honor to those pupils in our schools who show the greatest proficiency in the work. Those who comprehend the victories won in our wars will better understand the victories of peace.


It is fitting that this massive block of stone hewn by Nature’s wondrous hand in the frozen North and brought to this beautiful valley in a chariot of ice ages before the event which it evermore will commemorate, with inscription by which Art has dedicated it to it’s eternal mission, should be unveiled to our eyes by the hands of two children both have in their veins the blood of ancestors who fought in that war which made us a nation, but nevertheless possess the perfect innocence of childhood and in themselves are a

synonym of Peace.  It is fitting, too, that the veil which, being removed by their hands, has revealed to us this memorial of war, is not a battle flag but is the American flag of Peace.  Verily, thus is fulfilled the inspired prophecy of universal peace -made in ages

past that: “The lion and the lamb shall lie down together and a little child shall lead them.”


The work of the society of the Daughters of the American Revolution in encouraging our youth to learn American history and in rearing monuments to the makers of the Nation will keep alive in the minds and hearts of the people a knowledge and due            appreciation of their heroic deeds.  It is because of the spirit that inspired those who fought the battles of the Revolution, the War with Mexico and, the Civil War, that we in our own day have seen Dewey and Sampson and Schley and Lawton and Wilson and Wheeler and Lee, at last wearing the same blue, fighting the battles and win the victories that have made America a world power.


In a decade, America has accomplished more for the uplifting of the peo­ples of the Philippine Islands than Spain could do in four hundred years of misrule.  Her influence will awaken to civilization and enlightenment the vast population of the East that so long have slumbered in sloth and ig­norance. She will banish disorder from her little sister Republic of Cuba. She already has done more than all other nations combined to put

into practical operation the principles of interna­tional arbitration and rob grim War of

its vocation.


Within our borders we possess unlimited resources for the sustenance of hundreds of

millions of happy, busy people.  A single one of our sover­eign states, whose territory was acquired by war, with vast areas as yet unoccupied, presents a field for the pursuits

of peace as large as all New England, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Ohio and In­diana. It is equal in area to thirty-four states as large as Massachusetts. It is five times as large as all the British Isles. And yet this is but one of the stars in our galaxy of States.


What a boundless field for the pursuits of Peace!  Industry will reap it’s richest harvest and bestow upon its votaries its choicest blessings.   To ev­ery man and woman, youth and maiden this new century speaks eloquently of opportunity. To the young there is no limit placed on possible achievement and by the old:


“Something ere the end,

Some work of noble note may yet be done.”


‘And these victories of peace will, not be thwarted by cruel war;  the foundations of a lasting, universal peace have been laid by the great Power in the International Race Congress although not in our day, when the rivers of blood of war will be turned into limpid streams of peace blessing all the lands of the earth. The million’s of treasure for the maintenance of ar­mies and navies will be devoted to the development of the gifts which Nature has strewn with lavish hand, resulting in the material prosperity and the mental and moral uplift of all man­kind.  Already there is an unwritten, almost unconscious, but certain alli­ance of the Nations of the Anglo Saxon race that augurs well for the peace of the world. When Great Britain and America shall unite in announcing, in the words of America’s great warrior, -“Let us have peace!”  there will be peace.  No future conflict between these nations of the same blood is possible. They will unite in a common purpose for the maintenance of peace.  Years ago they demonstrated in China that, ”blood is thicker than water.”  In our late war with Spain, when the port of Manila was blockaded by our fleet while the city was held by the Spaniard’s, it was known to our men from Admiral down to Jackie that the German and Italian fleets were await­ing the slightest pretext to land and take possession of Manila, thereby in­volving us in complication’s and per­haps war with Germany and Italy. The broadsides of the German ships commanded the city. The English Ad­miral interposed his fleet between the German guns and the City, and Amer­ican and English hearts beat as one, knowing that no Anglo-Saxon race had became through unity and for­ever would remain the WELTGEIST which should shape the destiny of the Nations for peace.


America has won glorious victories in war, but she will win more glorious victories in peace, and the azure field of our Nation’s flag shall be filled with a hundred stars each sparkling for a free, a happy and prosperous state.


* Note:  The originally printed date of 1777 was replaced upon recommendation of Larry Smith that his research proved 1881 as the correct year.  rt/webmaster.