Suggested Sources - Compiled by Stanton F. Biddle, D.L.I.S.

Eichholz, Alice and James M. Rose. Free Black Heads of Households in the New York State

Federal Census, 1790-1830. Detroit, MI: Gasle Research Company, 1981, 301p.

Entzminger, Thomas A. Genealogies of African American Families in South Western New York
State, (1830 – 1955). Aurora, CO: Thaaron Publications, 2002, 190p.

Perez, Marjory Allen. Freedom, a Shared Sacrifice: New York’s African American Civil War Soldiers. Saline, MI: Herons Bend Productions, 2018. 344p.

Phelan, Helene C. And Why Not Every Man? An Account of Slavery, the Underground Railroad, and the Road to Freedom in New York’s Southern Tier. Almond, NY: Helene C. Phelan, 1987, 247p.

Steward, Austin. Twenty-two Years a Slave and Forty Years a Freeman; embracing a correspondence of several years, while President of Wilberforce Colony, London, Canada West. Rochester, N.Y.: William Alling, 1857, 221p.

Turner, O[rsamus]. History of the Pioneer Settlement of Phelps and Gorham’s Purchase and Morris’ Reserve; embracing the counties of Monroe, Ontario, Livingston, Yates, Steuben, most of Wayne and Allegany, and parts of Orleans, Genesee and Wyoming..., Rochester: William Alling, 1851, 588p.

Woodson, Carter G. Free Negro Heads of Families in the United States in 1830; Together with a Brief Treatment of the Free Negro. Washington, DC: The Association for the Study of Negro Life and History, Inc., 1925, 296p.